Many jumping interventions have been performed in children and adolescents in order to improve bone-related variables and thus, ensure a healthy bone development during these periods and later in life. This systematic review aims to summarize and update present knowledge regarding the effects that jumping interventions may have on bone mass, structure and metabolism in order to ascertain the efficacy and durability (duration of the effects caused by the intervention) of the interventions.
Identification of studies was performed by searching in the database MEDLINE/PubMed and SportDiscus. Additional studies were identified by contacting clinical experts and searching bibliographies and abstracts. Search terms included "bone and bones", "jump*", "weight-bearing", "resistance training" and "school intervention". The search was conducted up to October 2014. Only studies that had performed a specific jumping intervention in under 18-year olds and had measured bone mass were included. Independent extraction of articles was done by 2 authors using predefined data fields.
A total of 26 studies were included in this review. Twenty-four studies found positive results as subjects included in the intervention groups showed higher bone mineral density, bone mineral content and bone structure improvements than controls. Only two studies found no effects on bone mass after a 10-week and 9-month intervention. Moreover, those studies that evaluated the durability of the effects found that some of the increases in the intervention groups were maintained after several years.
Jumping interventions during childhood and adolescence improve bone mineral content, density and structural properties without side effects. These type of interventions should be therefore implemented when possible in order to increase bone mass in early stages of life, which may have a direct preventive effect on bone diseases like osteoporosis later in life.
Key words: adolescents; bone mineral density; intervention; jumping; osteoporosis