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Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma in children: a benign vascular tumor with multiple treatment options 
Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma in children: a benign vascular tumor with multiple treatment options
  Irene Schmid, Anne K. Klenk, Monika Sparber-Sauer, Ewa Koscielniak, Rebecca Maxwell, Beate Haberle
 [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]   Pageviews: 2789 Times
Background: Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KHE) is a rare vascular tumor affecting infants and young children. Although benign, it can be associated with an aggressive locally growing tumor and/or a life-threatening Kasabach¨CMerritt phenomenon (KMP). To date, only reviews of limited cases have been performed. We, therefore, conducted a comprehensive literature search to collect relevant data and make recommendations for future treatment trials.
Methods: Review of the available literature between 1993 and 2017 revealed a total of 105 publications involving 215 patients of less than 21 years of age. To this, we added 12 from our department and 4 from the Cooperative Weichteilsarkomstudie database.
Results: We found that KMP was present in 79% of the infants, in 47% of the 1-5-year olds, in 43% of the 6-12-year olds, and in 10% of the 13-21-year-old patients. KMP was present in nearly all (94%) patients with retroperitoneal tumors and in all patients with extra-regional tumors. The median size of a KHE without KMP was 12 cm 2 as compared to 49 cm 2 when associated with a KMP. With complete (not further classifiable if R0 or R1) resection, all patients were cured. If inoperable, response regarding KMP/regression of tumor size was seen in 29/28% with steroid-, 47/39% with vincristine-, 44/43% with interferon alpha-, 65/61% with anti-platelet agents-, and in 97/100% with sirolimus-containing therapies.
Conclusions: Patients with progressive KHE should undergo resection whenever it is considered a safe option. If inoperable, sirolimus should be the fi rst choice for treating KMP and reducing tumor size.
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World Journal of Pediatric Surgery

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