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Complications in children with percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) placement 
Complications in children with percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) placement
  Brigitta Balogh, Tam¨¢s Kov¨¢cs, Amulya Kumar Saxena
 [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]   Pageviews: 1535 Times
Background: The aim of this study was to analyze the complication rates and mortality in association with different operative techniques of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG), age, underlying diseases and other risk factors. Moreover, analysis of the indications of PEG insertion and the underlying comorbidities was also performed.
Methods: This study performs a literature analysis of PEG-related complications in children. Literature was searched on PubMed® (1994-2017) using terms ¡°percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy¡±, ¡°complications¡±, ¡°mortality¡± and ¡°children¡±.
Results: Eighteen articles with 4631 patients were analyzed. The mean age was 3 years (0-26 years). Operative techniques were: pull technique in 3507 (75.7%), 1 stage PEG insertion in 449 (9.7%), introducer technique in 435 (9.4%), image-guided technique in 195 (4.2%) and laparoscopic-assisted PEG in 45 (1.6%). Most frequent indications for PEG insertion were dysphagia (n = 859, 32.6%), failure to thrive (n = 723, 27.5%) and feeding difficulties (n = 459, 17.4%). Minor complications developed in n 1518 patients (33%), including granulation (n = 478, 10.3%), local infection (n = 384, 8.3%) and leakage (n = 279, 6%). In 464 (10%) patients, major complications occurred; the most common were systemic infection (n = 163, 3.5%) and cellulitis (n = 47, 1%). Severe complication like perforation occurred in less than 0.3%. Patients with lethal outcomes (n = 7, 0.15%) had severe comorbidities; and the cause of mortality was sepsis in all cases. Prematurity or young age did not affect complication rate. Patients with ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt had higher risk of major complications. In high-risk patients, laparoscopic-assisted PEG insertion had less major and severe complication than traditional pull technique.
Conclusions: PEG is a safe operative technique; although minor complications are relatively common and occur in up to 1/3 of patients, there is a fairly low rate of severe complications. Two-thirds of PEG patients have at least one comorbidity. Patients with VP shunt have higher risk of major complications. In high-risk patients, laparoscopic-assisted PEG is recommended.
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World Journal of Pediatric Surgery

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