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Current perspectives on the correlation of nocturnal enuresis with obstructive sleep apnea in children 
 
Current perspectives on the correlation of nocturnal enuresis with obstructive sleep apnea in children
  Miao-Shang Su, Li Xu, Wen-Feng Pan, Chang-Chong Li
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Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and nocturnal enuresis (NE) are common clinical problems in children. OSA and NE are thought to be interrelated, but the exact pathophysiological mechanisms are not yet clear. This review aims to explain the possible pathogenesis of NE in children with OSA.
Data sources: We have retrieved all relevant original articles from Database that have been published so far, including the prevalence studies of NE and OSA in children, sleep characteristic studies that use polysomnography (PSG) to focus on children with NE, and studies on the relationship between OSA and NE.
Results: Clinical studies have revealed that the risk of NE in children with OSA was increased compared with that of their healthy peers. This increased risk may be associated with sleep disorders, bladder instability, detrusor overactivity, nocturnal polyuria, endocrine and metabolic disorders, and inflammation.
Conclusions: Cardiopulmonary and renal reflex-induced neuroendocrine disorder may play an important role in the mechanism of NE in children with OSA, but this remains to be confirmed by animal studies. Other causes such as oxidative stress and inflammatory responses need to be further researched.
 
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World Journal of Pediatric Surgery

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