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Bartter¡¯s syndrome: clinical findings, genetic causes and therapeutic approach 
Bartter¡¯s syndrome: clinical findings, genetic causes and therapeutic approach
  Flavia Cristina Carvalho Mrad, S¨ªlvia Bouissou Morais Soares, Luiz Alberto Wanderley de Menezes Silva, Pedro Versiani dos Anjos Menezes, Ana Cristina Simões-e-Silva
 [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]   Pageviews: 388 Times
Background: Bartter¡¯s syndrome (BS) is a rare group of salt losing tubulopathies due to the impairment of transport mechanisms at the thick ascending limb of the Henle¡¯s loop.
Data sources: Literature reviews and original research articles were collected from database, including PubMed and Scopus.
Results: According to the time of onset and symptoms, BS can be classified into antenatal and classic BS. Molecular studies have identified different subtypes of BS. BS types I, II and III are caused by mutations on genes encoding the luminal Na+¨CK+¨C2Cl- co-transporter, the luminal K+ channel ROMK, and the basolateral chloride channel ClC-Kb (CLCNKB), respectively. Loss-of-function mutations of Barttin CLCNK type accessory beta subunit cause BS type IVa. Simultaneous mutations of CLCNKB and CLCNKA cause BS type IVb. BS type V consists in a novel transient form characterized by antenatal presentation due to mutations in the MAGE family member D2. Severe gain-of-function mutations of the extracellular calcium sensing receptor gene can result in an autosomal dominant condition of BS. Main clinical and biochemical alterations in BS include polyuria, dehydration, hypokalemia, hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis, hyperreninemia, high levels of prostaglandins, normal or low blood pressure, hypercalciuria and failure to thrive. Treatment focuses mainly at correcting dehydration and electrolyte disturbances and in measures to reduce polyuria, including the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications to control excessive renal prostaglandin E2 production.
Conclusions: Early diagnosis and treatment of BS may prevent long-term consequences such as growth failure, nephrocalcinosis and end-stage renal disease.
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