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Muscle strength and its association with cardiometabolic variables in adolescents: does the expression of muscle strength values matter? 
 
Muscle strength and its association with cardiometabolic variables in adolescents: does the expression of muscle strength values matter?
  Tiago Rodrigues de Lima, Xuemei Sui, Luiz Rodrigo Augustemak de Lima, Diego Augusto Santos Silva
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Background: We investigate the association between different muscle strength (MS) indices with cardiometabolic variables in adolescents.
Methods: Cross-sectional study comprising 351 adolescents (male 44.4%, age 16.6 ¡À 1.0 years) from Brazil. MS was assessed by handgrip strength and analyzed in five different ways: absolute MS and MS normalized for body weight, body mass index (BMI), height, and fat mass, respectively. Cardiometabolic variables investigated as outcomes were systolic and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), waist circumference (WC), high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), lipid and glucose metabolism markers. Multiple linear regression models adjusted for confounding factors were used.
Results: Absolute MS and/or MS normalized for height was directly associated with WC [up to 32.8 cm, standard error (SE) = 4.7] and DBP (up to 8.8 mmHg, SE = 0.8), and inversely associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (up to -8.0 mg/dL, SE = 14.1). MS normalized for body weight, BMI or fat mass was inversely associated with WC (up to -17.5 cm, SE = 2.2). According to sex, MS normalized for fat mass was inversely associated with triglycerides (male: 0.02 times lower, SE = 0.01; female: 0.05 times lower, SE = 0.01) and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (male: 0.02 times lower, SE = 0.01; female: 0.06 times lower, SE = 0.01), and inversely associated with hs-CRP only among male (0.03 times lower, SE = 0.01).
Conclusion: When normalized for body weight, BMI or fat mass, MS was superior to absolute MS or MS normalized for height in representing adequately cardiometabolic variables among adolescents.
 
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