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Effect of maternal pregestational diabetes mellitus on congenital heart diseases 
 
Effect of maternal pregestational diabetes mellitus on congenital heart diseases
  Zhi-Yan Chen, Shuang-Fa Mao, Ling-Hong Guo, Jian Qin, Li-Xin Yang, Yin Liu
 [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]   Pageviews: 1434 Times
 
Background: The increasing population of diabetes mellitus in adolescent girls and women of childbearing age contributes to a large number of pregnancies with maternal pregestational diabetes mellitus. Congenital heart diseases are a common adverse outcome in mothers with pregestational diabetes mellitus. However, there is little systematic information between maternal pregestational diabetes mellitus and congenital heart diseases in the off spring.
Data sources: Literature selection was performed in PubMed. One hundred and seven papers were cited in our review, including 36 clinical studies, 26 experimental studies, 31 reviews, eight meta-analysis articles, and six of other types.
Results: Maternal pregestational diabetes mellitus poses a high risk of congenital heart diseases in the off spring and causes variety of phenotypes of congenital heart diseases. Factors such as persistent maternal hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, polymorphism of uncoupling protein 2, polymorphism of adiponectin gene, Notch 1 pathway, Nkx2.5 disorders, dysregulation of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1, and viral etiologies are associated with the occurrence of congenital heart diseases in the off spring of mothers with pregestational diabetes mellitus. Treatment options including blood sugar-reducing, antioxidative stress drug supplements and exercise can help to prevent maternal pregestational diabetes mellitus from inducing congenital heart diseases.
Conclusions: Our review contributes to a better understanding of the association between maternal pregestational diabetes mellitus and congenital heart diseases in the off spring and to a profound thought of the mechanism, preventive and therapeutic measurements of congenital heart diseases caused by maternal pregestational diabetes mellitus.
 
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World Journal of Pediatric Surgery

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