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Sphingosine phosphate lyase insufficiency syndrome: a systematic review 
Sphingosine phosphate lyase insufficiency syndrome: a systematic review
  Zahra Pournasiri, Abbas Madani, Fatemeh Nazarpack, John A. Sayer, Zahra Chavoshzadeh, Fatemeh Nili, Paulina Tran, Julie D. Saba, Mahnaz Jamee
 [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]   Pageviews: 202 Times
Background: Sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase insufficiency syndrome (SPLIS) or nephrotic syndrome type-14 is caused by biallelic mutations in SGPL1. Here, we conducted a systematic review to delineate the characteristics of SPLIS patients.
Methods: A literature search was performed in PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases, and eligible studies were included. For all patients, demographic, clinical, laboratory, and molecular data were collected and analyzed.
Results: Fifty-five SPLIS patients (54.9% male, 45.1% female) were identified in 19 articles. Parental consanguinity and positive family history were reported in 70.9% and 52.7% of patients, respectively. Most patients (54.9%) primarily manifested within the first year of life, nearly half of whom survived, while all patients with a prenatal diagnosis of SPLIS (27.5%) died at a median [interquartile (IQR)] age of 2 (1.4¨C5.3) months (P = 0.003). The most prevalent clinical feature was endocrinopathies, including primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) (71.2%) and hypothyroidism (32.7%). Kidney disorders (42, 80.8%) were mainly in the form of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) and progressed to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in 19 (36.5%) patients at a median (IQR) age of 6 (1.4¨C42.6) months. Among 30 different mutations in SGPL1, the most common was c.665G > A (p.Arg222Gln) in 11 (20%) patients. Twenty-six (49.1%) patients with available outcome were deceased at a median (IQR) age of 5 (1.5¨C30.5) months, mostly following ESKD (23%) or sepsis/septic shock (23%).
Conclusion: In patients with PAI and/or SRNS, SGPL1 should be added to diagnostic genetic panels, which can provide an earlier diagnosis of SPLIS and prevention of ESKD and other life-threatening complications.
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