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Impact of time to diagnosis on the occurrence of cardiogenic shock in MIS-C post-COVID-19 infection 
Impact of time to diagnosis on the occurrence of cardiogenic shock in MIS-C post-COVID-19 infection
  Saïd Bichali, Mathilde Bonnet, Marie-Emilie Lampin, Jean-Benoit Baudelet, H谷loïse Reumaux, Olivia Domanski, Thameur Rakza, Alexandre Delarue, Morgan Recher, J谷rôme Soquet, Francois Dubos, St谷phane Leteurtre, Ali Houeijeh, Francois Godart
 [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]   Pageviews: 1121 Times
Background: In multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), diagnostic delay could be associated with severity. This study aims to measure the time to diagnosis in MIS-C, assess its impact on the occurrence of cardiogenic shock, and specify its determinants.
Methods: A single-center prospective cohort observational study was conducted between May 2020 and July 2022 at a tertiary care hospital. Children meeting the World Health Organization MIS-C criteria were included. A long time to diagnosis was defined as six days or more. Data on time to diagnosis were collected by two independent physicians. The primary outcome was the occurrence of cardiogenic shock. Logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis were used for outcomes, and a Cox proportional hazards model was used for determinants.
Results: Totally 60 children were assessed for inclusion, and 31 were finally analyzed [52% males, median age 8.8 (5.7每10.7) years]. The median time to diagnosis was 5.3 (4.2每6.2) days. In univariable analysis, age above the median, time to diagnosis, high C-reactive protein, and high N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) were associated with cardiogenic shock [odds ratio (OR) 6.13 (1.02每36.9), 2.79 (1.15每6.74), 2.08 (1.05每4.12), and 1.70 (1.04每2.78), respectively]. In multivariable analysis, time to diagnosis ≡ 6 days was associated with cardiogenic shock [adjusted OR (aOR) 21.2 (1.98每227)]. Time to diagnosis ≡ 6 days had a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 77% in predicting cardiogenic shock; the addition of age > 8 years and NT-proBNP at diagnosis ≡ 11,254 ng/L increased the specificity to 91%. Independent determinants of short time to diagnosis were age < 8.8 years [aHR 0.34 (0.13每0.88)], short distance to tertiary care hospital [aHR 0.27 (0.08每0.92)], and the late period of the COVID-19 pandemic [aHR 2.48 (1.05每5.85)].
Conclusions: Time to diagnosis ≡ 6 days was independently associated with cardiogenic shock in MIS-C. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to avoid the use of inotropes and limit morbidity, especially in older children.
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World Journal of Pediatric Surgery

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