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Comprehensive characterization of the genetic landscape of familial Hirschsprung¡¯s disease 
 
Comprehensive characterization of the genetic landscape of familial Hirschsprung¡¯s disease
  Jun Xiao, Lu-Wen Hao, Jing Wang, Xiao-Si Yu, Jing-Yi You, Ze-Jian Li, Han-Dan Mao, Xin-Yao Meng, Jie-Xiong Feng
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Background: Hirschsprung¡¯s disease (HSCR) is one of the most common congenital digestive tract malformations and can cause stubborn constipation or gastrointestinal obstruction after birth, causing great physical and mental pain to patients and their families. Studies have shown that more than 20 genes are involved in HSCR, and most cases of HSCR are sporadic. However, the overall rate of familial recurrence in 4331 cases of HSCR is about 7.6%. Furthermore, familial HSCR patients show incomplete dominance. We still do not know the penetrance and genetic characteristics of these known risk genes due to the rarity of HSCR families.
Methods: To find published references, we used the title/abstract terms ¡°Hirschsprung¡± and ¡°familial¡± in the PubMed database and the MeSH terms ¡°Hirschsprung¡± and ¡°familial¡± in Web of Science. Finally, we summarized 129 HSCR families over the last 40 years.
Results: The male-to-female ratio and the percentage of short segment-HSCR in familial HSCR are much lower than in sporadic HSCR. The primary gene factors in the syndromic families are ret proto-oncogene (RET) and endothelin B receptor gene (EDNRB). Most families show incomplete dominance and are relevant to RET, and the RET mutation has 56% penetrance in familial HSCR. When one of the parents is a RET mutation carrier in an HSCR family, the off spring¡¯s recurrence risk is 28%, and the incidence of the off spring does not depend on whether the parent suffers from HSCR.
Conclusion: Our findings will help HSCR patients obtain better genetic counseling, calculate the risk of recurrence, and provide new insights for future pedigree studies.
 
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World Journal of Pediatric Surgery

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