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Outcomes and risk factors of ventilator-associated pneumonia in neonates 
Outcomes and risk factors of ventilator-associated pneumonia in neonates
  Anucha Thatrimontrichai, Natthaka Rujeerapaiboon, Waricha Janjindamai, Supaporn Dissaneevate, Gunlawadee Maneenil, Supika Kritsaneepaiboon, Pattama Tanaanantarak
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Background: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in neonates has been associated with high mortality and poor outcome. This study aimed to compare the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of VAP and non- VAP conditions in neonates.
Methods: We performed a prospective cohort study in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in Thailand from January 2014 to December 2014. All neonatal patients who were ventilated more than 48 hours were enrolled.
Results: There were 128 enrolled patients. The median (inter quartile range) gestational age and birthweight were 35 (30.2, 37.8) weeks and 2380 (1323.8, 3020.0) g. There were 17 VAP patients (19 episodes) and 111 non-VAP ones. The VAP rate was 13.3% or 10.1 per 1000 ventilator days. According to the multivariate analysis, a birthweight less than 750 g [adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=10.75, 95% confidence interval (CI)=2.35-49.16; P=0.002] and sedative medication use (aOR=4.00, 95% CI=1.23-12.50; P=0.021) were independent risk factors for VAP. Compared with the non-VAP group, the median difference in the VAP group yielded a significantly longer duration of NICU stay (18 days, P=0.001), total length of hospital stay (16 days, P=0.002) and higher hospital costs ($5113, P=0.001). The inhospital mortality rate in the VAP and non-VAP groups was 17.6% and 15.3% (P=0.73), respectively.
Conclusions: A neonatal birthweight less than 750 g and sedative medication use were independent risk factors for VAP. Our VAP patients experienced a longer duration of both NICU and hospital stay, and incurred higher hospitalization costs.
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