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Surgical chylothorax in neonates: management and outcomes 
Surgical chylothorax in neonates: management and outcomes
  Karina Miura Costa, Amulya Kumar Sax
 [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]   Pageviews: 1977 Times
Background: Postoperative chylothorax occurs due to trauma to lymphatic vessels and can occur after any thoracic procedure. This study reviewed recent literature to evaluate the management and outcomes of surgical chylothorax in neonates.
Data sources: PubMed database was searched for articles in English, Portuguese and Spanish from 2000 to 2016. Data were collected for surgery, chylothorax management, complications, mortality and length of hospital stay (LOS).
Results: Twenty studies offered 107 neonates: congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) (n = 76, 71%), cardiac malformations (n = 25, 23.4%), esophageal atresia (n = 5, 4.7%) and CDH + extralobar sequestration (n = 1, 0.9%). Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) was the initial treatment in 52 neonates (48.6%), prednisolone + MCT in one (0.9%), total parenteral nutrition in 51 patients (47.7%), and three patients (2.8%) did not require any treatment. Octreotide and somatostatin were used as second or third line treatment in 25 neonates (23.4%), and 15 neonates (14%) underwent 17 surgeries, including thoracic duct ligation (TDL) (n = 9); pleurodesis (n = 3) (2 patients required TDL); TDL + pleurodesis (n = 2), and TDL + placement of hemostat (n = 1). Complications due to the chylothorax were reported in 27 neonates (25.2%): hypoalbuminemia + hyponatremia (n = 18), hypoalbuminemia (n = 4), hypoalbuminemia with cutaneous flushing as colateral effect of somatostatin (n = 1), loose stool after somatostatin use (n = 1), pneumonia (n = 1), congestive heart failure + hypernatremia (n = 1), and hyponatremia (n = 1). There were 21 deaths (19.6%) and median LOS was 53.4 days (30¨C93.1 days).
Conclusions: Conservative management is appropriate as initial treatment for neonatal postsurgical chylothorax. Octreotide and somatostatin are safe in neonates and surgical approach should be considered in prolonged leaks.
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World Journal of Pediatric Surgery

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