Extra genetic material in patients with Down syndrome (DS) may affect the function of any organ system. We evaluated cardiac functions using conventional tissue Doppler and two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography in patients with DS in the absence of congenital and acquired heart disease in patients.
A total of 115 patients with DS between 6 and 13 years of age with clinically and anatomically normal heart and 55 healthy children were included in this cross-sectional study. DS was diagnosed by a karyotype test. Patients with mosaic type were not included in this study. Systolic and diastolic functions were evaluated by echocardiography.
Pulsed waved Doppler transmitral early/late inflow velocity (E/A), tissue Doppler mitral annular early/late diastolic peak velocity (Ea/Aa), transtricuspid E/A and tricuspid valve annulus Ea/Aa, pulmonary venous Doppler systolic/diastolic (S/D) wave ratio were lower in patients with Down syndrome than in the control group (P=0.04, P=0.001, P<0.05, P<0.001, P<0.001, respectively). Mitral and tricuspid annular Ea were lower in patients with DS (P<0.001). The right and left ventricular myocardial performance indexes were higher in patients with DS than in the controls (P<0.01). They had significantly higher left ventricular mass, ejection fraction, the mitral annular plane systolic excursion values. However, the Down syndrome group compared with the controls had a lower strain values examined by two-dimensional longitudinal speckle-tracking strain echocardiography.
These findings suggest conventional tissue Doppler and two-dimensional longitudinal speckletracking strain echocardiography were useful methods of investigating ventricular function and identifying a higher incidence of biventricular dysfunction in patients with Down syndrome compared with the healthy controls.
Key words: diastolic function; Down syndrome; strain imaging analysis; systolic function; tissue Doppler